PREVALENCE AND DETERMINANTS OF HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IN PERINATAL ASPHYXIA POPULATION OF DISTRICT MARDAN, PAKISTAN

Kiramat Ullah, Mubassir Nadir, Samiullah Saddozai, Muhammad Qasim Khan, Khalil Ahmad, Qasim Khan

Abstract


Background: Neonatal encephalopathy is a diverse and clinically well-known syndrome. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and determinants of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in perinatal asphyxia population of District Mardan, Pakistan.

Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Pediatrics, Bacha Khan Medical College, Mardan, Pakistan from 1st January 2017 to 30th June 2017. 160 term neonates with perinatal asphyxia were included. Sex, age groups, gestational age, mode of delivery, weight groups and presence of HIE were variables. Presence of HIE was dependent while five demographic variables were independent variables respectively for five chi-square tests of association.

Results: Mean age of sample of 160 infants was 2.537±1.26 (1-7, range 6) days, mean gestational age was 38.681±1.24 weeks and mean weight 3.275±0.36 kg. Out of 160 infants with perinatal asphyxia, 16 (8.16%, 95%CI 7.35-13.46) had HIE (HIE). These positive 16 cases included 11 (6.88%) boys & 5 (3.12%) girls, 15 (9.38%) of 1-3 & one (0.62%) of 4-7 days, 14 (8.75%) of gestational age 37-39 & two (1.25%) of >39 weeks, 15 (9.38%) with vaginal delivery & one (0.62%) with C-section and 14 (8.75%) of ≤3 & two (1.25%) of >3 kg weight groups. There was association between presence of HIE and weight groups, but not with sex, age groups, gestational age and mode of delivery.

Conclusion: We found 10% prevalence of HIE in perinatal asphyxia population of District Mardan, Pakistan. The prevalence was higher in boys than girls, in age group 1-3 days than 4-7 days, in gestational age ≤37-39 than >39 weeks, in vaginal than C-section delivery and in weight group ≤3 kg than >3 kg group. There was association between presence of HIE and weight groups, but not with sex, age groups, gestational age and mode of delivery.


Keywords


Perinatal Asphyxia; Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy, Prevalence; Distribution; Adult; Sex; Age Groups; Gestational Age; Association; Chi-square Test of Association.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.46903/gjms/20.02.863

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