Yumna Tariq, Sonia Ali Khan, Mufarriq Shah, Shazia Noreen, Muhammad Tariq Khan


Background: Changes in visual functions such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and color vision have been reported by many women with normal menstrual cycle, which may be due to sensory and perceptual processes. The objective of this study was to observe the changes in visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS) and color vision (CV) during one complete menstrual cycle (MC) among young females.

Material & Methods: This cross sectional observational study was conducted from 1st October to 30th December 2021 on healthy, young unmarried females in Department of Ophthalmology, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Hayatabad, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan. Each subject was examined five times during the whole MC: Menstrual phase (MP), follicular phase (FP), ovulatory phase (OP), post ovulatory phase, and luteal phase (LP). In each phase, VA, CS, and CV were recorded on the Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (Log MAR) chart, the Pelli-Robson CS chart and PV-16 respectively. The mean and standard deviation of VA and CS and differences in their scores at the five points of the MC were analyzed through a sample t-test and a paired t-test, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used for CV abnormalities.

Results: There were total 35 participants in the study. Their mean age was 21.89 ±1.102 years. The duration of the MC ranged from 21 to 35 days. A significant difference in the mean score of VA and CS was observed only between the LP and MP, in both eyes. Mild confusion in tritan was observed in LP among three participants. In the FP, two participants reported mild confusion and one participant noticed severe confusion in tritan. All other participants did not show any changes in the CV.

Conclusion: Significant change in VA and CS was observed only in the LP and MP. Mild confusion in tritan was noted in some of the females while most of them did not show any change in CV.


Color vision; contrast sensitivity; menstrual cycle; visual acuity.

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