Hafiz Ullah Khan, Ilyas Khan, Atif Ahmad Khan, Asrar Ur Rahman, Zarak Khan, Rahmat Ullah Khan


Background: High cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL and low HDL are high risk factors in type 2 diabetics in giving rise to cardiovascular diseases. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum concentrations (mg/dL) of cholesterol, TG, HDL and LDL in type 2 diabetics versus non-diabetic controls in adult population of district Bannu, Pakistan.

Materials & Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Pathology, Bannu Medical College, Bannu, Pakistan from March, 2020 to February, 2021. Total known 100 type 2 diabetics along with 50 non-diabetic controls of >35 years age were selected. Those with acute myocardial infarction, acute cerebrovascular accident, chronic renal failure, acute burns, trauma, post-surgery, pregnant women and those taking lipid/ blood pressure lowering drugs were excluded. Socio-demographic variables were age in years, sex, occupation, residence and family income/month in PKR. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL were four research variables on ratio scale and were analyzed by mean, SD and range with 95% CI. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the variables between the two groups.

Results: The study group included 100 type 2 diabetics (66 men and 34 women) and 50 (29 men and 21 women) controls. Mean cholesterol concentration (mg/dL) was significantly higher (p=<.0001) in diabetics (208.22±55.24) than controls (150.26±25.29). Mean triglycerides concentration (mg/dL) was significantly higher (p=<.0001) in diabetics (202.58±82.62) than controls (157.88±53.42). Mean LDL concentration (mg/dL) was significantly higher (p=<.0001) in diabetics (148.11±55.06) than controls (113.22±32.97). Mean HDL concentration (mg/dL) was significantly lower (p=.002) in diabetics (42.48±14.24) than controls (49.38±11.76).

Conclusion: The current study concludes that serum concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL were significantly higher in type 2 diabetics than controls, while HDL was lower in diabetics than controls. High cholesterol, TG and LDL along with low HDL are high risk factors in type 2 diabetics in giving rise to cardiovascular diseases; that needs evaluation at earlier stages.


Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; Triglycerides; HDL; LDL; Cholesterol.

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