Fazli Maula, Nargis Noman, Iftikhar Ahmad, Abdul Razzaq, Muhammad Adil, Muhammad Nadeem, Kashif Habib, Muhammad Jamil, Nuzhat Afza, Rabail Khan, Muhammad Bilal


Background: Dyspnea is a common symptom in patients presenting to emergency departments worldwide. The objective of the study was to determine the pattern of spirometry findings in subjects presenting with dyspnea in Bannu, KP, Pakistan.
Materials & Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Bannu Medical College, Bannu, KP, Pakistan from 1st December 2015 to 31st march 2018. Sample size was 4300 selected through convenient sampling technique. All patients with acute and chronic dyspnea were included. Any patient unable to perform spirometry, recently diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), recent myocardial infarction and any infectious disease patient were excluded. A self-administered proforma was used for data collection. The demographic variables were sex and age groups. The research variables were type of lung pathology, severity of obstructive lung pathology, severity of restrictive lung pathology, causes of obstructive lung pathology and causes of restrictive lung pathology. All variables being categorical were analyzed through count and percentages using spss version17.
Results: Out of 4300 subjects, (55.72%) were males and (44.28%) were females. Two thousands four hundered and forty five (52.32%) had obstructive, (22.49%) restrictive, (12.9%) with mixed pattern and (4.3%) had normal spirometry. In obstructive patients bronchial asthma were (35.13%), COPD 741(30.3%) asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) (9.48%), acute bronchitis (05.64%), bronchiectasis 173(7.07%) and unclear diagnosis (04.17%). In restrictive patients post pulmonary tuberculous fibrosis (PTB) were (33.77%), cardiovascular disorders (28.35%), interstitial lung diseases (17.79%), chest wall disorders (6.47%) and unclear diagnosis in 143(13.6%).
Conclusion: Ninety five percent of individuals were having an abnormal spirometeric pattern. mostly old males were having bronchial asthma & COPD as obstructive and PTB & CVDs as restrictive lung disease.


Spirometry; Dyspnea; Pattern; Obstruction; Restriction.

Full Text:




Hutchinson J. On the capacity of the lungs, and on respiratory function, with a view of establishing a precise and easy method of detecting disease by spirometer. Med Chir Trans (Lond) 1846; 29:137e61.

Burney PGJ, Hooper R. Forced vital capacity. Airway obstruction and survival in a general population sample from the USA. Thorax 2011;66:49e54.

Camiciottoli G, Bartolucci M, Maluccio NM, Moroni C, Mascalchi M, Giuntini C, et al. Spirometrically gated high-resolution CT findings in COPD: Lung attenuation vs lung function and dyspnea severity. Chest. 2006;129:558-64.1.

Guidelines for the measurement of respiratory function. Recommendations of the British Thoracic Society and the Association of Respiratory Technicians and Physiologists. Respir Med 1994; 88:165-194.

Loniţa D. Pulmonary function tests in bronchial asthma. Pneumologia. 2008 Apr-Jun; 57(2):70-4.

P Buckley JM, Souhrada JF. A comparison of pulmonary function tests in detecting exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Pediatrics. 1975 Nov; 56(5 pt-2 suppl):883-9.

Majumdar S, Sen S, Mandal SK. A hospital-based study on pulmonary function tests and exercise tolerance in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other diseases’ J Indian Med Assoc. 2007 Oct;105(10):565-70.

Boros P.W. Franczuk M. Wesolowski S. Value of spirometry in Detecting Volume Restriction in Interstitial Lung Disease Patients. Respiration 2004;71:374-379.

Drummondaids MB, Laurence H, Philip T D, Gregory D. K, Eric C K, Alison M, et al. Factors associated with abnormal spirometry among HIV-infected individuals. AIDS 2015 Aug 24; 29(13):1691-1700.

Imran N,Abbasi N,Ashan A,Nafees A A. Correlation of respiratory symptoms and spirometric lung patterns in a rural community setting, Sindh, Pakistan: a cross sectional survey. BMC Pulmonary Medicine.2012,12:81 .

Majumdar S, Sen S, Mandal SK. A hospital-based study on pulmonary function tests and exercise tolerance inpatients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other diseases. J Indian Med Assoc. 2007 Oct;105(10):565-6,568,570.

Boros P,Franczuk M, Wesołowski S. “Mixed” changes in spirometry--verification of the pattern of lung function impairment]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2003;71(11-12):527-32.

Wesołowski S, Boros P.Restrictive pattern in spirometry: does FEV (1)/FVC need to be increased?. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2011; 79(6):382-7.

Saburi A, Hajihashemi A, Ghanei M. Relationship between clinical findings and spirometry parameters among patients with mild asthma. Am J Exp Clin Res 2015;2(3):113-117.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© 2011 Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences