Study of Pancytopenia in Balochistan, Pakistan

Saleh Muhammad Tareen, Mohamad Masood Tariq, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa, Mohammad Arif Awan, Zafar Ahmad, Yasir Javed


Background: Pancytopenia refers to a disorder in which all the three formed elements of blood are decreased. This study was aimed to identify the causes and clinical presentation of pancytopenia in subjects living in Balochistan province.

Material & Methods: It was a descriptive study carried out for two years from July 2009 to June 2011 in patients admitted to Sandman Provincial Hospital, Bolan Medical College Complex Hospital, Combined Military Hospital and Private Clinics in Quetta with the diagnosis of pancytopenia. Data was collected from hospital admissions for the diseases which may cause pancytopenia by using hematological test reports and other information. One hundred and eighty consecutive patients with pancytopenia were included from both sex and all age (divided in to age groups <20, 21-40 and >41 years).

Results: The main causes of pancytopenia were Malaria in 53(29.44%), tuberculosis in 31(17.22%), leukemia in 30(16.67%), aplastic anemia in 24(13.33%), hepatitis in 22(12.22%) and other diseases in 20(11.11%). Overall, 63.89% male subjects were observed in pancytopenia as compared to 36.11% females, further it was noted that malaria was the most common problem in 18.89% male and 10.56% female patients. Leukemia was the 2nd problem in males while 3rd in females. The results of different age groups showed that patients with age >40 years were mostly 90(50%) affected by pancytopenia, followed by 21-40 years 55(30.66%) and <20 years 35(19.44%). The most common presentation in there patients was fever (71.11%), followed by pallor (42.22%), fatigue (38.33%), weight loss (26.11%) and dizziness (25.56%).

Conclusion: Malaria, tuberculosis, aplastic anemia, and leukemia are the leading causes of pancytopenia and the most frequent presentation is fever followed by pallor and fatigue and the most commonly affected age group is more than 40 years in our set up.

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